Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography

November 9, 2016

# 16.30 A critical review of entrepreneurial ecosystems: towards a future research agenda

Filed under: 2016 — Tags: , , , , — mattehartog @ 5:13 pm

Yana Borissenko and Ron Boschma

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The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (EE) literature has attracted much attention, especially in policy circles. However, the concept suffers from a number of shortcomings: (1) it lacks a clear analytical framework that makes explicit what is cause and what is effect in an entrepreneurial system; (2) while being a systemic concept, the EE has not yet fully exploited insights from network theory, and it is not always clear in what way the proposed elements are connected in an entrepreneurial system; (3) it remains a challenge what institutions (and at what spatial scale) impact on the structure and performance of EE; (4) studies have often focused on the EE in single regions or clusters, but lack a comparative and multi-scalar perspective; (5) the EE literature tends to provide a static framework taking a snapshot of EE without considering systematically their evolution over time. For each of these shortcomings, we make a number of suggestions to take up in future research on EE.

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# 16.29 Climbing the Ladder of Technological Development

Filed under: 2016 — mattehartog @ 5:12 pm

Sergio Petralia, Pierre-Alexandre Balland, Andrea Morrison

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Despite being the main thriving force behind economic growth and industrial development, technological innovation remains highly concentrated on a handful of countries. It is therefore of a great interest to know how countries accumulate and develop their innovative capabilities, what kind of obstacles they need to overcome, and whether it is possible to identify opportunities to develop new areas of technological specialization. In this paper we analyze countries’ patterns of technological diversification and specialization along the development process. We provide evidence regarding the importance of existing technological capabilities and the relationship among technologies in shaping possible paths of technological development. We show that the likelihood of diversification is higher for those technologies that are related to countries’ existing profile of competences. Moreover, we show this effect to be stronger at earlier stages of development. Additionally, we show that countries tend to follow clear patterns of specialization along the development path, by moving towards more complex and valuable technologies.

# 16.28 Polarization and the growth of low-skill employment in Spanish Local Labor Markets

Filed under: 2016 — Tags: , , — mattehartog @ 5:11 pm

Davide Consoli, Mabel Sánchez-Barrioluengo

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This paper analyses the long-term transformations of local labor markets in fifty Spanish provinces to identify the extent and the drivers of employment polarization. We find that the decline of ‘routine’ mid-skill jobs is strongly driven by technology adoption and, also, that it is a strong predictor of the expansion of low-skill service employment. These results are not specific to large metropolitan areas, and are robust to various controls and instrumental variables that account for long-term industry specialisation. We also find a positive, albeit small, local multiplier effect of high-skilled workers on the demand for non-tradable service jobs.

October 11, 2016

# 16.27 Industrial diversification in Europe: The differentiated role of relatedness

Jing Xiao, Ron Boschma, Martin Andersson

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There is increasing interest in the drivers of industrial diversification, and how these depend on economic and industry structures. This paper contributes to this line of inquiry by analyzing the role of relatedness in explaining variations in industry diversification, measured as the entry of new industry specializations, across 173 European regions during the period 2004-2012. There are significant differences across regions in Europe in terms of industrial diversification. Relatedness has a robust positive influence on the probability that new industry specialization develops in a region. A novel finding is that the influence of relatedness on the probability of new industrial specializations depends on innovation capacity. We find that relatedness is a more important driver of diversification in regions with a weaker innovation capacity. The effect of relatedness appears to decrease monotonically as the innovation capacity of a local economy increases. This is consistent with the argument that high innovation capacity allows an economy to ‘break from its past’ and to develop, for the economy, truly new industry specializations. We infer from this that innovation capacity is a critical factor for economic resilience.

August 29, 2016

# 16.26 Agglomeration economies: the heterogeneous contribution of human capital and value chains

Dario Diodato, Frank Neffke, Neave O’Clery

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We document the heterogeneity across sectors in the impact labor and input-output links have on industry agglomeration. Exploiting the available degrees of freedom in coagglomeration patterns, we estimate the industry-specific benefits of sharing labor needs and supply links with local firms. On aggregate, coagglomeration patterns of services are at least as strongly driven by input-output linkages as those of manufacturing, whereas labor linkages are much more potent drivers of coagglomeration in services than in manufacturing. Moreover, the degree to which labor and input-output linkages are reflected in an industry’s coagglomeration patterns is relevant for predicting patterns of city-industry employment growth.

# 16.25 Risk-taking, skill diversity, and the quality of human capital: how insurance affects innovation

Filed under: 2016 — Tags: , , , , — mattehartog @ 7:24 pm

Andrea Filippetti, Frederick Guy

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We argue that human capital does a better job of fostering innovation when an economy has a diverse portfolio of specialist skills to draw on. While such a diverse portfolio is beneficial for a country, it includes many individual skill packages that are subject to considerable labour market risk. In the absence of strong income insurance (job security or unemployment insurance), the flight to safety in human capital investments will produce a national skill portfolio which is poorly diversified and less conducive to innovation.
Using country-level data for 25 OECD countries from 1985 to 2009, we find evidence that income insurance raises the marginal effect of human capital on innovation, with the latter measured by patenting. At the same time, we find a direct negative effect of insurance on patenting; at low-medium levels of human capital, the direct negative effect more than offsets the positive indirect effect, while at high levels of human capital the indirect positive effect dominates. We draw implications for income insurance and education policy.

# 16.24 Measuring how the knowledge space shapes the technological progress of European regions

Silvia Rita Sedita, Ivan De Noni, Roberta Apa, Luigi Orsi

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This work aims to investigate the features of the regional knowledge space that are more likely to be conducive to technological progress (TP), either in terms of dimension and relevance. We acknowledge the importance of knowledge assets for new knowledge production and we identify more or less path dependent processes that allow a region to be more competitive in terms of innovation potential. In particular, adopting an evolutionary view of regional development, we consider a regional knowledge space as composed of a knowledge base (KB) and a selection environment (SE), which differently affect the technological progress of the region. Empirical evidence come from a quantitative analysis of 269 European regions, whose data are included in the RegPat database. Results show that the variety of KB impacts positively on the technological progress at large. The variety of SE impacts positively only on the technological progress in terms of relevance, while the size of the SE impacts positively only on the quantitative side of the technological progress. Unrelated variety of KB and SE affects technological progress more widely than their correspondent related variety indicators.

August 3, 2016

# 16.23 Place, platform, and knowledge co-production dynamics: Evidence from makers and FabLab

Filed under: 2016 — Tags: , , , , , — mattehartog @ 4:40 pm

Raphaël Suire

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FabLabs (fabrication laboratories) have become popular but the academic literature on this entrepreneurial phenomenon is scant. This paper provides some insight into the sources of Fablab performance based on original data on the characteristics and interactions between (n = 48) FabLabs and their ecosystem. A FabLab is a geographically located, intermediary platform which reduces the matching and searching costs to stakeholders involved in an entrepreneurial endeavor. We find that a FabLab is less productive if disconnected from its ecosystem. Innovation production is highest when the FabLab acts as a platform allowing interactions between small explorative firms, and large exploitative firms. Its innovation remains explorative if the interaction involves only small explorative firms. Our study has some implications for the management of FabLabs and their ambiguous impact on the overall innovation ecosystem in relation to resilience, smart specialization and diversification.

# 16.22 Can we learn anything from economic geography proper? Yes, we can!

Filed under: 2016 — Tags: , , , — mattehartog @ 4:39 pm

Robert Hassink, Huiwen Gong, Fabian Faller

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Since the launch of new economic geography by Paul Krugman there have been intensive debates between geographical economists and economic geographers both about the ways they differ from each other as well as about potential complementarities. Overman’s (2004) provocative article, titled “can we learning anything from economic geography proper?” has been not very helpful in developing the latter. By responding to his core critiques we provide a much more positive answer to his question, do justice to economic geography and show more complementarities between geographical economics and economic geography.

# 16.21 Related variety and economic development:a literature review

Filed under: 2016 — mattehartog @ 4:38 pm

Jeroen Content, Koen Frenken

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Since the introduction of the related variety in 2007, a number of studies have been undertaken to analyze the effect of related variety on economic development. Our review of 21 studies makes clear that most studies find support for the initial hypothesis that related variety supports employment growth, though some studies suggest that the growth effects of related variety may be specific to knowledge-intensive sectors only. From the review, we list a number of further research questions regarding: methodology, the role of unrelated variety, different forms of relatedness, and the effect of related variety on knowledge production and entrepreneurship.

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