Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography

June 26, 2018

# 18.24 Historical Roots of Entrepreneurial Culture and Innovation Activity―An Analysis for German Regions

Michael Fritsch & Martin Obschonka & Michael Wyrwich

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Abstract: There is a research gap with respect to understanding the role of entrepreneurial culture and tradition for actual start-up behaviour. We combine historical self-employment data (entrepreneurial tradition) with a psycho- logical measure for entrepreneurial attitudes (entrepreneurial culture). The results reveal a positive relationship between the historical level of self- employment in a region and the presence of people with an entrepreneurial personality structure today. Our measure for a regional culture of entrepreneurship is positively related not only to the level of new business formation but also the amount of innovation activity.

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November 9, 2016

# 16.30 A critical review of entrepreneurial ecosystems: towards a future research agenda

Filed under: 2016 — Tags: , , , , — mattehartog @ 5:13 pm

Yana Borissenko and Ron Boschma

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The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (EE) literature has attracted much attention, especially in policy circles. However, the concept suffers from a number of shortcomings: (1) it lacks a clear analytical framework that makes explicit what is cause and what is effect in an entrepreneurial system; (2) while being a systemic concept, the EE has not yet fully exploited insights from network theory, and it is not always clear in what way the proposed elements are connected in an entrepreneurial system; (3) it remains a challenge what institutions (and at what spatial scale) impact on the structure and performance of EE; (4) studies have often focused on the EE in single regions or clusters, but lack a comparative and multi-scalar perspective; (5) the EE literature tends to provide a static framework taking a snapshot of EE without considering systematically their evolution over time. For each of these shortcomings, we make a number of suggestions to take up in future research on EE.

August 3, 2016

# 16.23 Place, platform, and knowledge co-production dynamics: Evidence from makers and FabLab

Filed under: 2016 — Tags: , , , , , — mattehartog @ 4:40 pm

Raphaël Suire

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FabLabs (fabrication laboratories) have become popular but the academic literature on this entrepreneurial phenomenon is scant. This paper provides some insight into the sources of Fablab performance based on original data on the characteristics and interactions between (n = 48) FabLabs and their ecosystem. A FabLab is a geographically located, intermediary platform which reduces the matching and searching costs to stakeholders involved in an entrepreneurial endeavor. We find that a FabLab is less productive if disconnected from its ecosystem. Innovation production is highest when the FabLab acts as a platform allowing interactions between small explorative firms, and large exploitative firms. Its innovation remains explorative if the interaction involves only small explorative firms. Our study has some implications for the management of FabLabs and their ambiguous impact on the overall innovation ecosystem in relation to resilience, smart specialization and diversification.

April 30, 2016

# 16.07 Historical Shocks and Persistence of Economic Activity: Evidence from a Unique Natural Experiment

Filed under: 2016 — Tags: , , — mattehartog @ 8:07 pm

Michael Fritsch, Alina Sorgner, Michael Wyrwich and Evguenii Zazdravnykh

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This paper investigates the persistence of entrepreneurship in the region of Kaliningrad between 1925 and 2010. During this time period the area experienced a number of extremely disruptive shocks including; devastation caused by World War II, a nearly complete replacement of the native German population by Soviets, and 45 years under an antientrepreneurial socialist economic regime followed by a shock-type transition to a market economy. Nevertheless, we find a surprisingly high level of persistence of industry-specific self-employment rates in the districts of the Kaliningrad region. Our analysis suggests that persistence of entrepreneurship is higher in regions with a history of successful entrepreneurship. That is, in regions where a specific industry was particularly efficient and entrepreneurial activity was especially pronounced.

November 14, 2014

# 14.23 Cultural diversity and entrepreneurship in England and Wales

Filed under: 2014 — Tags: , , , — mattehartog @ 7:15 pm

Andres Rodríguez-Pose and Daniel Hardy

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British regions are becoming increasingly culturally diverse, with migration as the main driver. Does this diversity benefit local economies? This research examines the impact of cultural diversity on the entrepreneurial performance of UK regions. We focus on two largely overlooked factors, the measurement of diversity, and the skills composition of diverse populations. First, more that demonstrating the importance of cultural diversity for entrepreneurship, we show that the type of cultural diversity measured is a decisive factor. Second, the skill composition of diverse populations is also key. Diversity amongst the ranks of the highly skilled exerts the strongest impact upon start-up intensities. The empirical investigation employs spatial regression techniques and carriers out several robustness checks, including instrumental variables specifications, to corroborate our findings.

April 21, 2014

# 14.11 The Effect of Regional Entrepreneurship Culture on Economic Development – Evidence for Germany

Michael Fritsch and Michael Wyrwich

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We use the historical self-employment rate as an indicator of a regional culture of entrepreneurship and link this measure to economic growth in recent periods. The results indicate that German regions with a high level of entrepreneurship in the mid-1920s have higher start-up rates about 80 years later. Furthermore, we find that the effect of current start-up activity on regional employment is significantly higher in regions with a pronounced entrepreneurial culture. We conclude that a regional culture of entrepreneurship is an important resource for regional growth.

April 9, 2014

# 14.10 Agents of structural change. The role of firms and entrepreneurs in regional diversification

Filed under: 2014 — Tags: , , , , , — mattehartog @ 3:58 pm

Frank Neffke, Matté Hartog, Ron Boschma, Martin Henning

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Who introduces structural change in regional economies: Entrepreneurs or existing firms? And do local or non-local firms and entrepreneurs create most novelty in a region? Using matched employer-employee data for the whole Swedish workforce, we determine how unrelated and therefore how novel the activities of different establishments are to a region’s industry mix. Up- and downsizing establishments cause large shifts in the local industry structure, but these shifts only occasionally require an expansion of local capabilities because the new activities are often related to existing local activities. Indeed, these incumbents tend to align their production with the local economy, deepening the region’s specialization. In contrast, structural change mostly originates via new establishments, especially those with non-local roots. Moreover, although entrepreneurs start businesses more often in activities unrelated to the existing regional economy, new establishments founded by existing firms survive in such activities more often, inducing longer-lasting changes in the region.

July 8, 2012

# 12.14 The Long Persistence of Regional Entrepreneurship Culture: Germany 1925–2005

Filed under: 2012 — Tags: , , , , — mattehartog @ 7:28 pm

Michael Fritsch and Michael Wyrwich

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We investigate the persistence of levels of self-employment and new business formation in different time periods and under different framework conditions. The analysis shows that high levels of regional self-employment and new business formation tend to be persistent for periods as long as 80 years and that such an entrepreneurial culture can even survive abrupt and drastic changes in the politic-economic environment. We thus conclude that regional entrepreneurship cultures do exist and that they have long-lasting effects.

 

January 30, 2011

# 11.04 Entrepreneurship, Structural Change, and Economic Growth

Filed under: 2011 — Tags: , , , — T.Broekel @ 6:55 pm

Florian Noseleit

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The ability to adjust to structural change is vital to economic development, and entries can be active participants in this process. While the importance of factor reallocations for growth is widely accepted, the role of entrepreneurs in managing these reallocations is rarely, if ever, mentioned in the empirical growth literature. This paper analyzes the role of entrepreneurial activity for adjustments of the sectoral structure and its relevance for regional economic development. The historical framework is the accelerated economic transformation that occurred in industrialized countries during the mid 1970s, resulting in an increasing need to adjust. Based on German data from 1975 to 2002, evidence is presented that sectoral reallocations are an important means for transforming entrepreneurial activity into growth.

April 8, 2010

#10.05 Seeds of regional structural change. The role of entrepreneurs and expanding firms in shaping local path dependencies

Filed under: 2010 — Tags: , , , , — T.Broekel @ 12:51 pm

Frank Neffke, Matté Hartog, Ron Boschma and Martin Henning

PDF (This is the updated 2014 version of the paper)

Who introduces structural change in regional economies: Entrepreneurs or existing firms? And do local or non-local firms and entrepreneurs create most novelty in a region? Using matched employer-employee data for the whole Swedish workforce, we determine how unrelated and therefore how novel the activities of different establishments are to a region’s industry mix. Up- and downsizing establishments cause large shifts in the local industry structure, but these shifts only occasionally require an expansion of local capabilities because the new activities are often related to existing local activities. Indeed, these incumbents tend to align their production with the local economy, deepening the region’s specialization. In contrast, structural change mostly originates via new establishments, especially those with non-local roots. Moreover, although entrepreneurs start businesses more often in activities unrelated to the existing regional economy, new establishments founded by existing firms survive in such activities more often, inducing longer-lasting changes in the region.

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