Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography

September 5, 2017

# 17.22 R&D Policy and Technological Trajectories of Regions: Evidence from the EU Framework Programmes

Filed under: 2017 — Tags: , , , — mattehartog @ 6:00 pm

Wolf-Hendrik Uhlbach, Pierre-Alexandre Balland and Thomas Scherngell

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It is widely acknowledged that new technological specializations of regions are to a large extent driven by the recombination of existing knowledge and capabilities. Since this process is path-dependant and self-reinforcing, it can easily lead to technological lock-ins. A key issue is therefore to evaluate whether public policy can impact technological trajectories of regions and how it can be more effective. To address this issue, we analyze quantitatively and systematically the relation between R&D subsidies and new technological specializations of European regions from 1999 to 2010. R&D subsidies are identified by using the EU Framework Pro- grammes (FP) from the EUPRO database, and matched with patent documents from the OECD-REGPAT database. Using a fixed-effects linear probability model, our results indicate that FP participations have a positive but relatively small effect on the development of new specializations of regions, and that it can compensate for a lack of local related capabilities. We also find evidence that R&D subsidies have the highest impact if the level of relatedness with the new technology is neither too low (policy can not build a cathedral in the desert) nor too high (if all the capabilities are already present there is no need for policy).

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May 15, 2015

# 15.15 The Evolution of Specialization in the EU15 Knowledge Space

Dieter F. Kogler and J├╝rgen Essletzbichler and David L. Rigby

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Significant attention has been directed to processes of knowledge production in a spatial context, but little consideration has been given to the type of technological knowledge produced within specific places. In this paper we use patent co-classification data from the European Patent Office (EPO) to measure the distance between all pairs of 629 International Patent Classification (IPC) categories. A multi-dimensional scaling algorithm allows us to visualize these distances in a map of the EU15 knowledge space. We trace the evolution of that space from 1981 to 2005. The patent class distance data are combined with counts of patents by IPC categories to measure the average relatedness (specialization) of knowledge produced within each NUTS2 region. We show that knowledge specialization has increased significantly across EU15 regions over time and we report those regions that have the most specialized and the least specialized knowledge bases. Changes in the average relatedness of regional knowledge cores are decomposed to reveal the contributions of technological entry, exit and selection processes over space and time. In a final section of the paper, technological diversification and abandonment at the NUTS2 level are modeled as a function of proximity to the knowledge core of the region and to knowledge spillovers from neighboring regions that are mediated by social and spatial distance.

September 26, 2013

# 13.16 Relatedness and Technological Change in Cities: The rise and fall of technological knowledge in U.S. metropolitan areas from 1981 to 2010

Filed under: 2013 — Tags: , , , , — mattehartog @ 9:14 am

Ron Boschma, Pierre-Alexandre Balland, Dieter Franz Kogler

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This paper investigates by means of USPTO patent data whether technological relatedness was a crucial driving force behind technological change in 366 U.S. cities from 1981 to 2010. Based on a three-way fixed effects model, we find that the entry probability of a new technology in a city increases by 30 percent if the level of relatedness with existing technologies in the city increases by 10 percent, while the exit probability of an existing technology decreases by 8 percent.

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